Science

Curriculum intent

‘Our Scientists pursue an understanding of how the world works and natural phenomena through scientific enquiry and analysis to enable them to critically evaluate evidence and apply knowledge and skills to unfamiliar contexts’.

Purpose


Our vision in Science is to develop successful scientists by instilling confidence, independence and enquiry. Activities, resources and opportunities are designed to build this confidence and independence and develop scientific enquiry and analysis skills.
Our students learn to be amazed at the world and to begin to understand how the world works and its wonder. It will be emphasised how valuable this will be in helping them make informed decisions throughout their lifetime.
We explore some of the fundamental questions of the discipline, including how our body works, the effect we have on our environment and how we interact with it, to developing an understanding about the nature of matter itself. This gives a rounded appreciation of our world, life and the universe. To this end our science curriculum is designed and delivered by specialist teachers.
Over the 7 years of studying Science, students study these key scientific ideas which helps them to understand the scientific method, which is valuable in all aspects of life, including preparing them for careers related to science.

Key concepts, ideas and threads that underpin the curriculum

What students know
1 The Scientific Method: How to research and interrogate sources, Devise questions to investigate, Test hypotheses, Plan investigations and understand variables, evaluate risks and hazards, Communicate ideas and explanations, Draw and justify conclusions. Use and evaluate models.
2 Biology concepts:
Understanding cells, systems of organisms, biological processes, inheritance, homeostasis and ecology
3 Chemistry concepts:
Atomic structure, structure & bonding, chemical measurements, chemical changes, energy changes
4 Physics Concepts:
Energy (conservation and transfer), forces and their application, nuclear physics, quantum physics, fields, electromagnetism, kinetic theory.

 

What students can do
1 Develop an understanding of, and be able to apply enquiry skills
2 Knowledge of methods that scientists use to answer questions.
3 Knowledge of apparatus and techniques, including measurement.
4 Knowledge of data analysis
5 Knowledge of how science uses evidence to develop explanations.
6 Demonstrate a knowledge of scientific vocabulary and its discourse


How our curriculum shapes learners:
As a result of their learning and experiences in Science, students leave us with lifelong learning skills and an ability to make sense of the world they live in. We also see many students go on to their next stage of learning by taking up medical degrees and many others related to Science and Technology.

 

ACADEMIC END POINTS

Year 7

At the end of year 7 students will be confident and competent in basic practical techniques used to illustrate and apply concepts.
Students will be able to:


Relate the features of the particle model to the properties of materials in different states. (Extended in years 8 and 9, then in year 10 Physics).
Compare the properties of elements with the properties of a compound formed from them, understanding the difference between them (extended in chemical reactions in year 8 and chemical changes in year 10). Investigate exothermic and endothermic reactions (extended in year 10 chemistry).

Identify the principal features of plant and animal cells and describe their functions (extended in year 9). Know the key features of the digestive system understanding their main functions (extended in year 9). Knowledge of human reproduction (extended with variation in Year 8 and year 11). Appreciate the concept of a healthy diet and way of life (extended in year 9 and then in year 10). Investigate the impact of changes in a population of one organism on others in an ecosystem (ecology in year 10).

Explain energy stores and energy transfers (extended in year 9 and then in year 10). Consider the link between energy and temperature and efficiency of energy conversions (extended in year 9). Understand the concept of forces and how they affect the speed and motion of objects (extended in year 9, and then further in year 11). Investigate variables that affect the speed of an object. Appreciate how the motion of planet Earth can explain days and seasons. Understand the need for space exploration (extended in year 9 and then in year 11 separate physics).

Year 8

Devise ways to separate mixtures, based on their properties (extended in year 9). Sort elements using chemical data and relate this to their position in the periodic table (extended in year 9). Compare the properties of elements with the properties of a compound formed from them (extended in year 10). Develop an understanding of the properties and applications of acids (extended in year 10). Understand the contribution that natural and human chemical processes make to our carbon dioxide emissions and the effect on the climate (extended in year 11).

Structure and function of the circulatory and respiratory system (extended in year 9). Developed an understanding of the process of respiration, breathing and photosynthesis as key biological processes (extended in year 10). Understand the importance of variation and explain how it may lead to the survival of a species (extended in year 11).

Explore the magnetic field pattern around different types or combinations of magnets. Investigate ways of varying the strength of an electromagnet (extended in year 11). Compare and explain current flow and potential difference in different parts of a series and parallel circuit (extended in year 10). Use the wave model to explain observations of the reflection, absorption and transmission of waves (extended in year 10). Use ray diagrams to model how light passes through lenses and transparent materials (extended in year 11 separate physics).

Year 9

Biology

By the end of year 9, students will have deepened their year 7 knowledge on cells and breathing and circulation through studying in greater detail specialised cells and linking technology developments to cell discoveries. Students can apply knowledge of movement of molecules to specialised surfaces in biological organisms. Students have developed their understanding of body systems and organisational hierarchy covered in year 7 and 8 by looking in greater detail at digestive, respiratory and circulatory systems. Students develop this understanding in years 10 and 11 whilst looking at protective systems in the body and homeostasis. In year 12 and 13, students further develop body system knowledge. Students apply understanding learnt to unfamiliar biological contexts. Students have built enquiry skills through completion of practical work, such as required practicals, investigating the effect of pH on enzyme activity and testing food for biological molecules. Students can evaluate and analyse their findings.

Chemistry - Year 9 students build on their learning from Years 7 and 8 in particles, separation techniques and the periodic table. Students are introduced to the structure of the atom and how our current model has developed through discovery of novel evidence and adaptation of previous models. Students look at different types of elements and how they behave, and how information on this can be interpreted from the periodic table. This naturally leads on to qualitative analytical techniques to test for presence of gases and ions. Practical activities refine students’ previous knowledge of apparatus and techniques, and data analysis. By the end of the year, students can interpret the key information presented on the periodic table and understand trends in properties that appear on the table.

Physics:
Students develop their understanding of energy (year 7) to calculate energy stored in different situations, and use understanding of the conservation of energy to solve abstract problems involving these. Students will also develop their understanding of particles (year 7 chemistry) to explain the energy transfers when material heat up, change state, and are put under pressure. Students develop their understanding of space (year 7) and the use of evidence to reach the Big Bang model of the Universe. Students use practical tasks to select and use graphs effectively to analyse results.

ELC: Year 9 students undertaking the ELC will focus on the application and key ideas that underpin science. In year 9 students will learn about how key areas of the human body works, building on knowledge acquired in year 7, such as cells, digestive and circulatory systems. Students will link ideas of infection and think about how we treat these using modern medicines. Students will also build on ideas developed in year 7 to inform healthy and lifestyle choices. This will then be built upon later in the course when factors are linked to health in the environment.
The physics topic of Energy, forces and the structure of matter build on students learning from both year 7 and 8. Again linking facts taught heavily to relevant and relatable contexts such as use of energy in the home, insulation and efficiency, which was introduced in year 7. Students will look at sources of energy and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of these, as well as the different forces and their application in contexts such as tyres on slippery roads and its relation to breaking distance.

Year 10 

Biology

By the end of year 10, students will have been introduced to the key concepts of infection and protective systems found in the body. This supports students when studying communicable disease in year 12 where students go into further detail about human and plant responses to diseases. Students deepen their year 8 understanding of respiration and photosynthesis reactions in year 10 by looking in more detail at these reactions and processes. Students will also develop their understanding of ecology, extending their year 7 understanding of interdependence between organisms and the environment. This will prepare them for future units at A Level Biology. Students apply understanding learnt to unfamiliar biological contexts. Students will build enquiry skills through completion of practical work such as required practical’s investigating the effects of osmosis, microscope skills, rate of photosynthesis and effects of antimicrobial chemicals (Separate Biology only). Students will evaluate and analyse their findings.

Chemistry - Students develop their understanding of atomic structure from Year 9 by studying structure and bonding, which enables students to understand the interactions between atoms and the properties of different substances that arise from those interactions. This is further explored in the topics of chemical changes, energy changes and rate and extent of chemical change (a new idea to Year 10, though rate is also understood as speed – a Physics topic). These form a framework to build on in Year 12 A-level Chemistry. Practical activities are included that allow students to plan, implement, analyse and evaluate. By the end of Year 10, students can link their understanding of atomic structure to structure and bonding to predict how different elements and compounds will behave on their own or when combined with other chemicals. Students can represent different types of substances in various models and choose the correct model for specific substances. They can also link their understanding of energy transfers from Year 7 Physics to chemical reactions.

Physics:
Students further develop their understanding of electricity (year 8) using key concepts to explain results seen to key practical tasks. Students can explain the role of electrical components and select appropriate components depending on what the circuit is required to do. Students build upon the structure of the atom (chemistry year 9) to understand how scientists use evidence to develop explanations, we build upon this to understand radioactivity, and how to determine the risk when using radioactive materials. Students build upon their understanding of waves (year 8) as an energy transfer mechanism, describing the process and calculating key measurements. Students use practical tasks to describe how to improve the accuracy of measurements taken.

ELC: In year 10, students undertake the learning of chemistry, recapping and deepening their understanding of particles, elements, mixtures and compounds introduced in year 7. Students work on their practical skills by undertaking lots of practical activates and investigations into chemical reactions. Students are introduced to the idea of bonds and how these work to influence the state of the substance. Students build on their knowledge of metals and their properties, having been made aware of the foundations of this in year 7. They are also introduced to alloys and how their properties can be useful in different real world contexts. Following this, students also explore for structure, uses and consequences of different plastics on our lives and the environment.

Students will have been introduced to ideas concerning inheritance in year 8, and this is reaffirmed in Biology 2. Evolution, natural and artificial selection are covered, and students explore how genetic engineering is becoming a powerful tool in the manipulation of organisms and their environment. Linking to this, students will deepen their knowledge gained in year 7 with regards to animal adaptations, ecosystems, food chains, and how human and other factors can influence and disrupt these.

Year 11

Biology

By the end of year 11, students will have built upon their KS3 and year 10 knowledge of systems whilst being introduced to homeostasis, looking in detail at the nervous system and hormonal systems. This supports students when studying year 13 Biology A Level when students learn about homeostatic mechanisms in greater detail. Students use knowledge on variation gained in year 8 to develop and understanding of inheritance in year 11, also looking at ethical issues and how scientists produce theories, such as evolution. Students will build upon this knowledge when studying year 13 patterns in inheritance chapters. Students will apply understanding learnt to unfamiliar contexts. Students will build enquiry skills through completion of practical work such as investigating reaction time and rate of decay/germination (Separate Biology only) and analysing and evaluating their findings.

Chemistry – students should have an appreciation of the natural phenomena occurring globally which Chemistry can explain and an appreciation for the use of materials and significance to their own lives. Students develop their understanding of measurements used in Chemistry in studying quantitative chemistry; their knowledge of specific chemical reactions through topics such as organic chemistry and chemistry of the atmosphere; and how these ideas are applied and manipulated to improve their lives through the topics of chemical analysis and using resources. Practical skills are further built through investigations which require the implementation of the scientific method. Students at the end of Year 11 can link their knowledge from Years 9 and 10 to more recent topics and reflect on their use of resources in an ethical and sustainable way.

Physics:
Students further explore forces (buliding upon year 7 knowledge) showing understanding of the different types of force and the associated motion that corresponds to the resultant force, elasticity, momentum and conservation of momentum. Students apply this knowledge to a range of problems including collisions and car safety. Students also build on their previous knowledge of electromagnetism (year 8) to understand the forces associated with electromagnetism and apply this knowledge to electric motors. Students will use practical tasks to discuss systematic and random errors and how to minimise the effect on results. Students are able to draw on concepts taught throughout their physics education so far and apply this to a range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts. Students can explain concepts in a clear and logical structure using correct scientific terminology.

ELC: In year 11 ELC students will deepen their understanding gained in year 10 by undertaking a unit of chemistry. Students will complete investigations into rates of reactions. Students will link learning to year 7 from acids and alkalis. Students will discover the development of the atmosphere and link this to changes today.
In Physics 2 students will undertake practical work investigating circuits and the relevant factors that control them. Students will link ideas learnt in year 8 with regards to electricity, voltage, current and resistance and apply this knowledge to real world situations such as wireing a plug. Building on work undertaken in ks3, ELC students will review and deepen their understanding if magnets, electromagnet and their uses in everyday life. Deepening and broadening students understanding from year 8 content, students will also learn about different types of waves, their properties and their functions. Examples include the electromagnetic spectrum and their uses in society.

Year 12

Biology

By the end of year 12, students will have further developed their GCSE understanding of transport in animals and plants by looking in greater detail at processes, biological structures and cells within animal and plant transport. Students will have used their year 9 understanding of cells in year 12 to look in detail at subcellular structures, biological molecules found in organisms, importance of biological membranes and cell division. Students will have looked in great detail at structure and processes involved. Students will have built upon their year 10 knowledge on infection through studying communicable disease- a module especially relevant during the pandemic. Biology students will have built upon year 11 knowledge of biodiversity and classification in year 12 which will have supported further year 12 learning about ecosystems and sustainability. Students will have completed enquiry based required practical work to investigate microscope skills, dissection, sampling, enzyme reactions, membranes, separating techniques, effect of osmosis and biological molecule testing. Students will have started to develop the ability to link biological ideas studied and apply these to unfamiliar contexts. Students will also be developing the ability to analyse and evaluate evidence across all topics taught. Students will be exposed to higher standard exam questions where they are required to apply their knowledge to more abstract scenarios.

Chemistry - students build their foundational knowledge in Chemistry, focusing on important chemical ideas that underpin all other topics including atomic structure (initially introduced in Year 9 but regularly revisited throughout GCSE), quantitative chemistry (Year 11), reactions of acids (Year 10), redox reactions (Years 10/11) and bonding and structure (Year 10). These ideas are further developed through the study of physical and organic chemistry. Specific topics in physical chemistry include the periodic table, enthalpy changes, rates of reaction, and chemical equilibrium, which are further explored and expanded upon in Year 13. Organic chemistry topics include nomenclature, aliphatic hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes), alcohols and haloalkanes; organic practical skills and organic synthesis; and instrumental analytical techniques. Students spend significant time practising the key practical skills of planning, implementing, analysing and evaluating. By the end of Year 12, students can begin to link their foundational knowledge to both physical and organic chemistry and solve simple and multi-step problems with and without structure.

Physics:
Students build on their knowledge of forces (year 11) and energy (year 9) to study classical mechanics, they are able to identify and describe forces acting on an object, calculate the resultant force and explain the associated motion they will be seen by an object. At the end of the year students will revisit extend upon this to explain the motion of objects moving in circular paths, this is then revisited in electromagnetism (year 13), and gravitational fields (later in year 12). Students further develop their understanding of wave motion (year 10) and the principles of waves, and can apply this knowledge to explain a range of experimental results. Students are also introduced to quantum mechanics through experimental evidence that does not fit the wave model of light. Students build upon their knowledge of electricity (year 10) to explain discrepancies in experimental values when compared to expected results and apply this information to uses and sensors and circuits to store charge.

Cambridge Technical Applied Science:
Students will revisit the chemical structures of elements and compounds (year 9), types of bonding (year 11) which being introduced to atomic radii and orbitals. Students will develop their practical skills involved in understanding reactions in chemical and biological systems for example: Redox reactions (year 10 & 11), rates of reaction (Throughout year 9, 10 & 11). Year 12 will expand their basic concepts of cells (year 7 & cell division year 11) to include detailed roles of most organelles found in plants, animals and bacteria. Students are expected to expand their knowledge of specialised cells (year 7 & 9) to understand how tissue types are related to their function. Carbon forms a vast number of different types of compounds due to the nature of the carbon atom and students must use this concept to identify the differences in organic compounds and how carbon can form large complex molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Students will be able to fully describe the stages of protein synthesis and parts of the cell which are involved. Students will be able to link their knowledge of ions (year 10) to the structure and role of inorganic compounds and their importance in living systems and treatment of disorders. At the end of the course students will be able to understand the structure, properties and uses of materials. They will be also able to calculate force (year 11), power (year 9) and resistance (year 10) to determine its effect on different materials.

Laboratory techniques takes the knowledge learnt in science fundamentals and applied them to more practical situations. By the end of year 12 students will be well verse at carrying out experiments under health and safety protocols. Students have developed method to separate, identify and quantify the amount of substances present in a mixture through chromatography (year 8 & 9); or electrophoresis for enhances identification and sensitivity. Student will developed techniques to determine the concentration of an acid or base using titration, this will expand their prior knowledge of acids from year 8 & 10. Students utilise their numeracy skill in quantitative chemistry (year 11) to calculate concentrations of solutions. Students will be able to use techniques to identify cations and anions in samples through flame and precipitate tests. Students will further develop their knowledge of cells to examine and record features of biological samples from plants, animals, algae and fungi, whist furthering their skills in microscopy (year 7 & 10). Students will be expected to know the purpose of working in an aseptic or clean room whilst maintaining sterility and cleanliness.

 Year 13

Biology

By the end of year 13, students have further developed their understanding from GCSE of homeostatic control looking at mechanisms of excretion, neuronal and hormonal control of the human body. Students will have extended their biological process knowledge on photosynthesis and respiration understanding from year 10 by understanding in detail the reactions taking place. Students will have built upon GCSE knowledge of inheritance when understanding patterns of inheritance, genetic engineering and biotechnology- looking at current developments in technology. Students are supported with applications to higher education that link with Biology. Students will have completed enquiry based required practical work to investigate microbiology, animal responses and plan and carry out their own photosynthesis research practical. Students will have developed the ability to link biological ideas studied and to apply knowledge of these ideas to unfamiliar contexts. Students will have developed the ability to analyse and evaluate evidence given in a wide range of contexts. Students will have had more extensive experience in applying their knowledge to challenging contexts within exam questions.

Chemistry - extend understanding from Year 12 of physical chemistry through the study of energy, reaction rates and equilibria, redox and the periodic table. Students also further their learning of organic chemistry from Year 12 through the study of several new functional groups (aromatics, carbonyls, amines, acid derivatives and amides) with emphasis on the importance of organic synthesis and analysis (chromatography and NMR). Year 13 students further their development of practical skills through investigations which build on the foundations developed in planning, implementing, analysis and evaluation. By the end of Year 13, students should be able to link their understanding from each module and apply their understanding to novel contexts to solve problems which may be unstructured.

Physics:
Students are introduced to the concept of electric fields, and use this knowledge to explain resultant forces and motion of charged particles. Students extend their knowledge and understanding of electromagnetism and apply this knowledge to explain the motion of charged particles in magnetic fields and how this is used to generate and distribute electricity. Students extend their knowledge of nuclear physics and radioactivity (year 10), and apply this knowledge to justify the choice of medical tracers and techniques used. Students extend their understanding of thermal physics (year 9 and chemistry) and the models used to simplify calculations in this field, they apply this knowledge and knowledge of fusion to explain the energy transfers in the core of stars. Students extend their knowledge of waves and motion to explain simple harmonic motion, they extend this knowledge practically to explain the structure of building and other large structures to reduce this motion. Students build on their knowledge of astrophysics (year 7) to explain how we can determine astronomical distance and explain the processes taking place in stars, their understanding of redshift is also applied to explain how ultrasound can be used to determine the direction and speed of blood flow. Students are able to plan suitable experiments using a range of equipment to determine unknowns and draw valid conclusions from data. Students are able to evaluate their experiment and plan improvements to their method. Students are able to draw on concepts taught throughout their physics education and apply this to a range of familiar and unfamiliar contexts. Students can explain concepts in a clear and logical structure using correct scientific terminology.

Cambridge Technical Applied Science:
By the end of the course students would have completed detailed assignments in understanding the types of hazards that may be encountered in the laboratory building on basic knowledge of lab safety (year 7 & 8) and expanding in biological and chemical hazards (year 12). Student will be able to design a safe functioning laboratory to manage the risk presented by hazards. Designing a lab would include: developing initial plans, identifying key work place procedures and evaluating the legislation to maintain safe places to work.

Year 13 will be able to classify and identify microorganisms building on the knowledge of the structure of the cell (year 7 & 12), infectious diseases (year 10) and aseptic techniques (year 10 Biology & 12). Students would understand the use of microorganisms in agriculture and evaluate the development of genetically-modified crops (year 11) where they would have explored their scientific, ecological, safety and ethical implications. Students would gain the knowledge to use microbiology in food production and the biochemistry of fermentation. Students will be well versed in understanding the action of antimicrobials on microorganisms and the plight of antimicrobial resistance to hospitals, nursing and care homes.

Students will understand how product testing determines the development of consumer products such as types of testing; product development phases and the effectiveness of testing products. Students will build on titration techniques (year 12) and link them to consumer products. Students will evaluate extraction and separation techniques (year 9 & 12) and identify how these techniques can improve products from foods to cosmetics & pharmaceuticals.

 

Key features of learning


A curriculum for all students of ambition, integrity and academic rigour that:
· Provides inspiration and opportunity
· Builds core knowledge and conceptual understanding
· Develops skills and personal attributes and supports all students to succeed and thrive.

We provide our students opportunities to develop their practical skills and to investigate for themselves scientific ideas using ‘hands on’ practical work where it is practicable to do so. This provides them with the tools needed to solve problems and the confidence to make errors in the pursuit of the final solution to a problem. We also support students investigating their own choice of experiment to help them answer their own learning questions, helping students to see how academics conduct scientific research.
Our Science lessons are designed to allow students to develop their Hayes leaner attributes alongside gaining valuable insight and understanding into key scientific processes and events. At least one aspect of the Hayes Learner attributes is highlighted in each lesson alongside the gaining of achievement points
We expose our students to excellence by challenging students and modeling and celebrating examples of excellent work
We provide enrichment through a variety of trips in this country and abroad, as well as clubs in school to support learning and promote enthusiasm for the subject, which includes clinics for all exam groups and a Science club for Key Stage 3 students.

 

What will you see in Science Lessons?

• Excellent teaching and Learning
• Wide range of teaching tools, particularly practical work.
• Interleaving quizzes
• Think, pair, share
• Extended writing
• Exam practise
• Students engaged with the lesson
• Independent study set regularly and marked with appropriate feedback.
• Deep thinking about the scientific concepts covered.
• Routines & expectations, and praise
• Opportunities for independent work & self-reflection
• Use if ‘Hayes 10’ independent tasks.
• Reference to careers when relevant

What will you see in Science books?

• Date and title
• Clear understanding of learning objective
• Keywords and definitions
• Self-assessment in red
• Teacher feedback in purple
• Do Now tasks to engage students and link to prior knowledge as they enter the classroom
• A planned structure for written work related to practical work.
• Clear development of ideas.
• High quality presentation which is cross referenced.

What formative assessment will you see in Science?

• Quizzes at the start of many lessons cover recent and less recent work.
• Use of mini white boards.
• Cold call and interrogative questioning.
• Past paper questions What is the department currently reading and why?
• Ofsted curriculum review on science
• Current news and developments reported through scientific publications (RSC, ASE, IoB, IoP)
• Topical research
• Examination reports
• Kurzgesagt books and videos

What is the department currently reading and why?

• Ofsted curriculum review on science
• Current news and developments reported through scientific publications (RSC, ASE, IoB, IoP)
• Topical research
• Examination reports
• Kurzgesagt books and videos

Click here to view the Science Curriculum map.